ENSO stands for El Niño/ Southern Oscillation. The ENSO cycle refers to the coherent and sometimes very strong year-to-year variations in sea- surface temperatures, convective rainfall, surface air pressure, and atmospheric circulation that occur across the equatorial Pacific Ocean. El Niño and La Niña represent opposite extremes in the ENSO cycle.
The Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) is one measure of the large-scale fluctuations in air pressure occurring between the western and eastern tropical Pacific (i.e., the state of the Southern Oscillation) during El Niño and La Niña episodes. Traditionally, this index has been calculated based on the differences in air pressure anomaly between Tahiti and Darwin, Australia.
The Pacific Decadal Oscillation is a long-term fluctuation of the Pacific Ocean that waxes and wanes between cool and warm phases approximately every 5 to 20 years. In the cool phase, higher than normal sea-surface heights caused by warm water from a horseshoe pattern that connects the north, west and southern Pacific, with cool water in the middle. During most of the 1980s and 1990s, the Pacific was locked in the oscillation's warm phase, during which these warm and cool regions are reversed. http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/news.cfm?release=2008-066
Pacific / North American Pattern (PNA) – The Pacific/ North American teleconnection pattern (PNA) is one of the most prominent modes of low-frequency variability in the Northern Hemisphere extratropics. The positive phase of the PNA pattern features above-average heights in the vicinity of Hawaii and over the intermountain region of North America, and below-average heights located south of the Aleutian Islands and over the southeastern United States.
Greg Craven has done a very good job of outlining the basic science and risks analysis in a series of videos that he has produced in response to the concerns over the actual science as well as those skeptical of that science. From a risk perspective, he has done a wonderful job in the series. The science has only a few minor representations that are generally slightly out of context. This does not take away from the excellent risk analysis presentation of the arguments.
National and international security concerns regarding global warming.
Information about Solar Irradiance.
Global Temperature: NCAR/UCAR, NCDC, and NASA GISS Analysis: The current analysis uses surface air temperatures measurements from the following data sets: the unadjusted data of the Global Historical Climatology Network (Peterson and Vose, 1997 and 1998), United States Historical Climatology Network (USHCN) data, and SCAR (Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research) data from Antarctic stations. The basic analysis method is described by Hansen et al. (1999), with several modifications described by Hansen et al. (2001) also included. Modifications to the analysis since 2001 are described on the separate Updates to Analysis.
The context of thermal inertia in long-term is different than short-term
This section is dedicated to information about climate tipping points.
Weather intensities are driven by natural variations and overall climate forcing. Forcing agents vary such as surface reflectivity, greenhouse gases and natural variation in atmospheric and ocean cycles as well as longer term forcing agents such as the Milankovitch cycles that drive long term climate change. Even longer term forcing agents have to do with tectonic shifts over millions of years.
What is the difference between weather and climate? Weather is considered short-term variability, while climate is long-term trend based on multiple factors. These factors depend on context. In other words, one persons weather is another persons climate. Generally speaking, in the context of human caused global warming, climate is considered 30+ years of trend with attribution.
Paleoclimatology Records: The Paleo Temperature Record: From the World Data Center for Paleoclimatology: If anyone is not sure if there are enough measurements for us to have a good idea of what the past temperature and atmosphere was, the following list shows the types and disciplines from which paleo data is measured to model the past climate of earth.
Often when someone realizes that climate is an important issue and that human-kind is influencing the climate, the next obvious question arises. What can we do? Here are some simple steps and considerations that we can all do to help.
One of the important questions concerns what we don't know. This section is dedicated to putting what we don't know into perspective with what we know in order to understand what it means.
The Ralph Keeling Curve