In order to better understand our atmospheric processes one needs to examine first the basics of the system components as illustrated below, and second the external and internal underlying systems that affect how our atmosphere acts, changes and interacts with all the various components. It sounds a bit complex but at the same time, it is merely sets of interacting components that operate in a very basic action/reaction manner.
Additional information can be found in the Ocean Cycles as well as the general science. The key factors to consider are Earth reflectivity of surface elements (albedo), heat absorption on land and in the oceans, how the heat is exchanged between these systems, how Earth's rotation affects atmospheric cells, and ultimately the underlying physics.
Needless to say, Earth receives nearly all its atmospheric heat energy from the sun.
Idealized view of Atmospheric Circulation