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Southern Oscillation Index (SOI)
The Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) is one measure of the large-scale fluctuations in air pressure occurring between the western and eastern tropical Pacific (i.e., the state of the Southern Oscillation) during El Niño and La Niña episodes. Traditionally, this index has been calculated based on the differences in air pressure anomaly between Tahiti and Darwin, Australia.
Located in Projects & Resources / Environment / Global Warming
Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO)
The Pacific Decadal Oscillation is a long-term fluctuation of the Pacific Ocean that waxes and wanes between cool and warm phases approximately every 5 to 20 years. In the cool phase, higher than normal sea-surface heights caused by warm water from a horseshoe pattern that connects the north, west and southern Pacific, with cool water in the middle. During most of the 1980s and 1990s, the Pacific was locked in the oscillation's warm phase, during which these warm and cool regions are reversed. http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/news.cfm?release=2008-066
Located in Projects & Resources / Environment / Global Warming
Solar Influence
Observations of sunspots began in the time of Galileo, about 400 years ago. Heinrich Schwabe recognized the 11.1 year solar cycle average in 1843. Science is working to improve our understanding of solar activity but beyond 400 years it becomes increasingly speculative.
Located in Projects & Resources / Environment / Global Warming
Oceanic Thermal Inertia
The primary reasons we are not heating up faster include oceanic thermal inertia and industrial negative aerosol forcing.
Located in Projects & Resources / Environment / Global Warming